The Red Lion in 2006. The division between the two former cottages which now comprise
the inn is clear.
Not all inn keepers kept to the law, one sold beer out of hours over the hedge, while
in 1876 Simeon Leete was fined £2 for serving George Smith and George Hill when they
were already drunk.
In December 1889 Mrs Catherine Martin became inn keeper, but a year later she was
succeeded first by Christopher Cattel, then Edward Tyzack, Robert Tranfield, Douglas
Eley and John Elgar.
William Brown had died in 1871 and his wife Emma and her son Alfred leased the public
house to Messrs Pryor Reid and Co of Hatfield in 1893. The tenants rented the property
for £65 pa and the building was to be put in good order. This arrangement lasted
only three years, for when his mother died at the age of over 90, Alfred Brown sold
the Red Lion to John Green, brewer of Luton, in 1897.
About 1869 William Brown’s eldest son Charles moved into the Red Lion with his young
wife. While they were there they had two daughters born to them, Blanche and Ethel
Caroline. William Brown had moved to Gosmore and his son also continued to trade
as a cattle dealer while at the Red Lion. On the death of her husband, Emma Brown
took over his property and eventually returned to Preston where her son Alfred farmed
at the Home Farm.
A series of names can be traced in the Register of the Licences preserved in the
Petty Session records. The earliest entry is that of Charles Brown, which was renewed
in 1873, but in December of the following year Alfred Chalkley took over, followed
briefly by Simeon Leete, Jonathan Richardson, William Olney, William Dalton, Alfred
Oliver, John Howland and George Ward during the next 15 years.
Joseph Saunderson farmed in a modest way and when he died in 1829, his wife, Harriet,
took over the house and the land. This was on the understanding that the building
and its contents would be auctioned on her death and the proceeds divided between
their five children - Joseph, Sophia, Charles, Stephen and Alfred.
Harriet Saunderson supported herself and her family by farming and selling beer,
for in 1832 she was listed in Piggott’s Directory as a beer retailer. This is the
first reference to the sale of drink on the premises, which later became known as
the Lion in 1844, and eventually the Red Lion. In 1838 her public house had an annual
rateable value of £14. She rented six acres in Pains Field from the Dartons and farmed
her own land - Breeches and Chamberlains Field in Butcher’s Lane as well as the
four acres attached to the house. Two of Harriet’s sons were still living at home
in 1841. Sophia, her only daughter, had married Robert Flegg of the Ship Inn at Hitchin.
About 1844 Samuel Lucas, the brewers of Hitchin, came to an arrangement with her
to supply beer. They also settled the financial agreement which had been made earlier
with two Hitchin bankers, Joseph M. Pierson and Henry Crabb.
Mrs Saunderson died in 1847 and the property was put up for auction by Jackson of
Hitchin on July 24 of that year. It was described as having two sitting rooms, shop,
tap room, kitchen, cellarage, five bedrooms, stabling, large garden, fruit trees
and the common rights attached to it.
About this time he purchased the small cottage adjacent to his old home at auction
for £46. For over three generations the Newman family of Hitchin owned this property
and when Samuel Newman, the coach master died in 1793 the trustees put it up for
sale. From this time onwards both properties were treated as one, and Stephen mortgaged
them to Edward Bruton, a Kimpton farmer and brewer. (Note: see Ward correction)
By 1811 the property had been divided into three cottages which were occupied by
Thomas Cain, William Hawkins and Henry Ward, the family of the latter having lived
in the smaller cottage for many years. Meanwhile, despite his wooden leg, Stephen
Swain became involved in various public activities in Hitchin, holding such posts
as special constable, surveyor of the highways and the Receiver of Assize Returns
for which he compiled information concerning the price of wheat and the quantities
sold in the town. Eventually Swain sold his property on the Green at Preston to Joseph
Saunderson who paid off the existing mortgage which had been raised with John Whitney,
a Hitchin grocer, in 1811.
A sizeable amount of land was attached to both cottages. The smaller property had
about an acre at the back, while the larger building had three acres of pasture which
lay behind the house and stretched into Back Lane. This land still belonged to the
Red Lion until Pryor House was built and the new school was erected in Back Lane
more recently. The field which lay by the side of the present footpath had been pasture
for centuries, and consequently the home of many rare wild flowers.
The history of the two cottages which now form the Red Lion can be traced back at
least to the beginning of the 18th century. The Manor Court Rolls of Temple Dinsley
record a series of transactions during the century, for in 1710 William King acquired
the larger house from Richard Deamer. Later on, his son disposed of the house to
John Swain, the blacksmith, in 1754. Eventually it was acquired by John Swain’s brother,
Edward, whose son Stephen inherited the property in 1771. (But, see correction -
Link: History of Red Lion)
The story of the Swains, who lived in Preston for many generations, will be told
elsewhere but Mary, John’s unmarried sister, left a fascinating will. She died in
1764 at the house on Preston Green where she lived with her brother and his family.
Obviously a well dressed lady who lived in some comfort, she bequeathed to her nieces
not only such items as her gold rings, silver spoons and a silver nutmeg grater,
but furniture in her living room and the kitchen. Her extensive wardrobe included
gowns, petticoats, cloaks, gloves, hats, aprons, handkerchiefs and stays. All her
clothing was shared among her brothers’ daughters - even her second-best stays were
handed down! Her status in the village was reflected by her request that her body
should be taken to Hitchin Church on a hearse pulled by four horses, while the mourners
were to be carried by post chaise.
When Stephen Swain took over the house, he mortgaged it to Mathew Hoster a few years
later and moved to Hitchin. However, it is not surprising that he left the family
business, for due to an accident he wore a wooden leg. This disability exempted him
from service with the militia and he became a shopkeeper, leaving his Preston cousins
to work as village blacksmiths.
From this time onwards there was more stability for the licensees. When in 1898 Clement
Wightman was appointed, he stayed until 1910. In that year he was followed by Charles
Anderson. About this period Green must have borrowed money to finance his expansion,
for Edward Snow Fordham of Ashwell and Charles Kidd in Kent were trustees for the
Anderson was replaced by Herbert Lawrence in August 1912 and two years later Samuel
Hall became the new licensee. He stayed for five years and was followed by James
Hedley in December 1920. Mr and Mrs Hedley ran the Red Lion together for 25 years
and Martha Hedley kept the pub going for the last year in 1945 when the licence was
in her name. She was a competent lady who on occasions reproved her husband for spilling
beer on his shoes. He had a weakness for keeping his glass of beer on a ledge beside
the cellar steps and was tempted to fill it up on his frequent journeys to bring
up beer for the customers.
This article was researched and written by former Preston resident, Nina K. Freebody.
It was one of two pieces featuring the public houses of Preston and appeared in the
magazine, ‘Hertfordshire Countryside’ in October 1983.
I am grateful to Christina Clews and Robert Freebody for their kind permission
to include this transcription.
The Red Lion public house in Preston is a tall brick building made up of two cottages.
That to the north was a small, ‘one up and one down’ type and its first floor room
has a higher ceiling compared with the rooms of the larger house adjoining. From
evidence discovered recently in the attics, the roofline of the smaller cottage was
once lower and at some point the two houses were roofed to the same height.
Both cottages have been altered considerably over the years. However, the larger
one still retains its typical 18th century frontage with a modillioned eaves cornice
and a range of three windows on the second floor, which have double hung sashes and
glazing bars. In the attics, traces of the original wide floor boards can be seen
in one bedroom and on the landing, while the other room on this level contains all
of its 18th century flooring. An inglenook fireplace was discovered during recent
alterations but all the fireplaces in both cottages have been considerably changed
over the centuries. Two original windows on the first floor were found at the rear
of the house. These had been hidden for many years after an extension was added in
the 19th century.
The new owner was William Brown, a farmer from Bendish. For £820 he acquired ‘all
that cottage now used as a public house, the Red Lion, with two closes of four acres’.
Brown paid off the money which Harriet Saunderson had owed to Samuel Lucas and £365
was handed to Priscilla Swain, the surviving executor, for distribution to the heirs.
The Brown family owned the Red Lion for 50 years and at first William and his wife
Emma lived there with their four youngest children. Emma was a Preston girl and her
husband was both publican and cattle dealer. After about ten years they must have
moved away and installed managers, for in 1846 Samuel and Ebenezer Foster were there.
The former appeared as a witness in the famous Preston murder case when Edward Foreman,
the miller at Charlton, had been found robbed and dying at the bottom of Preston
Fortunately, such events were rare but it no doubt provided a source of conversation
for many weeks afterwards. Life was usually uneventful and the most serious crime
in Preston was poaching for rabbits.
According to the Hertfordshire Express in August 1865 the new landlord, Mr Maxey,
had trouble with three of his customers, Henry Jeeves, George Fairey and Joshua Palmer.
They became quarrelsome and used ‘disgusting language’ and when refused more beer
went across the Green to the Chequers. There they bought a can of beer from Henry
Bradden and returned to the Red Lion to drink it. Mr Maxey sent to Hitchin for a
policeman to deal with his troublesome customers who were duly fined ten shillings
each at the next Petty Sessions.
For two years after World War II Alfred Stevens ran the Red Lion and his daughter
remembers her visits to Preston at that time. Another licensee still remembered by
some of the villagers was Alfred Massey, who arrived in January 1947. He was at the
Red Lion for almost 20 years. His father had kept the Old Maypole at Waterend but
as his father went into the police force, Mr Massey was the next generation to become
a publican. At one time he was also a gardener at Princess Helena College, but this
was not surprising for when he was a young man he worked as a gardener in Buckinghamshire
with the now famous Percy Thrower. He retired at the age of 78 and is remembered
for the introduction of an annual harvest festival service at the bar.
This custom was continued by Martin King who ran the Red Lion for 12 years until
his death in 1980. For the next two years or so Ernest Mole was the license and it
was during this time that Whitbreads the brewers, who had taken over Greens in 1962,
decided to make changes. The villagers became involved and it is sufficient to say
here that a decision was made to purchase the Red Lion. History was made and now
the only public house in the village is no longer part of a large organisation but
part of the community.
This article was of particular interest to me in my quest to find my ancestors in
Preston. When I read that Nina Freebody had discovered that Henry Ward had lived
in the smaller cottage of the two which were to become the Red Lion and that his
family had lived there ‘for many years’, I was able to follow her research trail.
Henry Ward was the son of my great x5 grandfather, Joseph Ward. I traced the manorial
document that Nina consulted. It was dated 21 October 1793 and stated that the cottage
was formerly occupied by ‘Jeremiah Gazely and afterwards Joseph Ward and now William
Ward’. I then searched the Poor Law records and found that the first mention therein
of Joseph Ward at Preston was in 1751 when he paid rates on the cottage with its
acre of land. This established when my ancestors were living in Preston.
However, later in-depth study of manorial rolls, wills and maps revealed that the
house in which the Wards were living was not part of the Red Lion as described above
but was the neighbouring cottage on School Lane.